Explain how radioactive age dating is completed
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Dogs were used to herd reindeer in the regions of the north circa 13,700 BC (Zeuner, 1963). In addition Neolithic religion ascribed right-handedness to the divine female and left-handedness to the divine masculine.
As portents of death Black Dogs have been sighted in churchyards where they are called Kirk or Church Grims. Its purpose remains unclear but it must be associated ritually with the surrounding complex. Windmill Hill One of the largest causewayed enclosures in Britain, see Figure 10, it has an area of 8 hectares, outer ditch of 360m diameter, with 3 roughly concentric rings of interrupted ditches (Darvill, 2002), and “…provides clues to the Figure 10. Earliest occupation was around 3800 BC with the enclosure built circa 3500 BC with a number of infant burials and human remains scattered throughout the ditch floors (Darvill, 2002).
In Britain, at the Neolithic site of Flag Fen dogs were ritually sacrificed to become the spirit guardians of the community. w=300&h=282 300w, https://ericwedwards.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/pictures_from_the_past_-_avebury_stone_106_-_copyright_martin_ringer_2012.jpg? w=150&h=141 150w, https://ericwedwards.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/pictures_from_the_past_-_avebury_stone_106_-_copyright_martin_ringer_2012600w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" / Figure 14.
Mesolithic Natufians of the Levant show that excavated cattle and horse bones were those of animals still in the wild state, whereas sheep (caprovines) and dogs were the first species domesticated. Photograph of stone 106 of the Avebury inner circle showing the prominent vulva mark in relation to the once existing male obelisk. The sexual metaphor in shamanic and fertility rituals is often shown with rock art motifs that symbolise the vulva, with the entry of the shaman into spiritual realm regarded as a form of ritualised intercourse (Pearson, 2002).
The legends of the Black Dogs has few parallels in world mythology (Trubshaw, 2011), and as guardians they are seen as protectors of the portals or liminal passages down to the Otherworld of the dead (Brown, 1978). Avebury henge itself is a ritual enclosure as evidenced by its circular form of a bank outside the ditch with substantial buildings within.
The Black Dog has an association with witches and as transformational forms are not regarded as offensive. Thus the circularity and repetition of Neolithic ritual practice combined with the “…architecture of the entire cycle was designed to be read as a sequence of visual images of the Neolithic deity.” (Dames, 1977).
Archaeology and mythology indicate a special role for dogs with a symbolic relationship to humans. AVEBURY STONE 106 COPYRIGHT MARTIN RINGER 2012 " data-medium-file="https://ericwedwards.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/pictures_from_the_past_-_avebury_stone_106_-_copyright_martin_ringer_2012.jpg?
Probably domesticated properly some 10,000 years ago (Zeuner, 1963), their domestication “…may well have commenced in the Pleistocene age and was certainly present by Mesolithic times.” (Brown, 1978). w=300&h=282" data-large-file="https://ericwedwards.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/pictures_from_the_past_-_avebury_stone_106_-_copyright_martin_ringer_2012.jpg? w=500" class="size-medium wp-image-5298 aligncenter" src="https://ericwedwards.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/pictures_from_the_past_-_avebury_stone_106_-_copyright_martin_ringer_2012.jpg? w=300&h=282" alt="PICTURES FROM THE PAST - AVEBURY STONE 106" width="300" height="282" srcset="https://ericwedwards.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/pictures_from_the_past_-_avebury_stone_106_-_copyright_martin_ringer_2012.jpg?
These are the features that underpin most mythology, superstition and folklore concerning dogs. The Black Dog is usually described as larger than a normal dog with large glowing red eyes. Yet 3 phases were determined and revealed a stepped pyramid shape.
Some are viewed as benevolent creatures whereas other opinions state that “…the Black Dog is looked on as a bad omen, ill luck, disaster or death attending his appearance…” (Rudkin, 1938). Black Dogs are often associated with crossroads, ancient trackways, and places of execution especially as a gallows or gibbet was often placed at a crossroads. The assumed habitat of the Black Dog is its natural home of a road, by a stream or river a place of passage from one place, one realm, to another. Black Dogs also haunt prehistoric burial sites, and hollowed or burnt out trees, and sometimes are actually associated with a family or particular person (Brown, 1958). Phase 1 started 2800 to 2700 BC and completed 2000 BC was possibly a spiral or flat circular area some 20m across and enclosed by a wattle fence (Darvill, 2002), the centre a turf covered clay mound.
In the Highlands though there is the belief in the or green ‘fairy dogs’. Many of the hand prints were smaller than female hands as established by analysis of digital ratios. It is most likely, considering the role of women in primordial society as shamans, that ancient art was mostly the work of women (Webb, 2013). Within the bank the village of Avebury, see Figure 5, dates from the Anglo-Saxon period which developed out of the henge’s own continuum of seasonal use and ritual history. Within Avebury there are 98 stones in the outer ring and 27 and 29 in each inner ring, see Figure 6, with an obelisk and minimum 13 stones associated with the south circle.
The main feature of the Black Dog legends is that, apart from being essentially nocturnal, is in its having roots in both persons and locations (Brown, 1978). Hand prints on cave walls were analysed by Dean Snow who showed that there was a gender difference between relative lengths of fingers. Even though another theory claims the hand prints may be those of adolescent boys some 75% of cave art hands are female. There are 3 or 4 cove stones with another 12 associated with the north circle and Ring Stone.
In Lincolnshire there is Hairy Jack; Lancashire has Skriker, Trash, Shag, the Barguest, and Bogey Beast; Yorkshire provides us with Skriker also, plus Padfoot; Somerset is the home of the Gurt Dog or Great Dog; Devon the Yeth or Yell Hound; Cumbria provides the Capelthwaite; Suffolk the Galleytrot, with the Mauthe Doog in Scotland and the Isle of Man; other names also include variously the Churchyard Beast, Kirk Grim, Shug Monkey, Hateful Thing, Swooning Shadow, Gyltrash, Oude Rode Ogen, Dip and Tibicena. Moreover, the stones at Avebury (as elsewhere during the Neolithic) were gender classified and so “…were assigned solar-calendrical duties, the objective being fertility.” (Meaden, 1999).