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Reed (1929) used a control schizophrenic group (30) and found that 18 percent of the controls were discharged from the hospital in one year while 37 percent of the Mn treated schizophrenic patients (30) were discharged. English (1929) studied many schizophrenics but had the best results with Mn in those who had been psychotic only two weeks to three years. Although Hoskins failed to follow the experimental procedure and design of the successful investigators his study triumphed and manganese hydrochloride intravenously was no longer used.Reed used 2 to 8 ml of a 0.02 molar Mn solution intravenously twice weekly over a period of 15 weeks; followed by a 0.3 g of manganese chloride twice daily by mouth. Of 38 such patients an increase in body weight, physical improvement and mental improvement occurred in 22 patients. We found in 1968 (Pfeiffer and Iliev) that oral Mn produced a three fold increase in excretion of Cu in schizophrenic patients and that the combination of Zn and Mn was even more effective in promoting urinary Cu excretion.
We are at present studying the factors which may increase the absorption of Mn from the intestinal tract.
The physicians at the Princeton Brain-Bio Center have now had four years’ experience in the use of Mn supplements.
In the 1977-79 period we noted low blood Mn levels in many of our schizophrenic patients and, therefore, increased the dose of oral Mn using either 10 mg or 50 mg of Mn as the gluconate.
Prolonged use of phenothiazines causes tardive dyskinesia.
Phenothiazines might chelate manganese making it unavailable for some presumed function as an enzyme activator.
Chronic use of hydralazine (a manganese chelator) in rats produced manganese deficiency which resulted in convulsions.
Low blood and serum manganese levels may play a role in epilepsy possibly by interfering with membrane stability.
Since many schizophrenics had a Cu overload we used “ziman” drops (10 percent Zn sulfate with 0.5 percent Mn chloride) to reduce their Cu burden.
Six drops of Ziman morning and night provides 10 mg of Zn and 3.
The essential trace elements zinc and manganese have been noted as factors in brain disease since the 1920s.
The combined use of zinc and manganese in schizophrenia is based on: 1) Increased urinary excretion of copper when both zinc and manganese are given orally; 2) Zinc alone causes a decrease in blood manganese; 3) The double deficiency of zinc and manganese frequently is found in patients with excess copper.
In oral doses manganese occasionally elevates blood pressure in patients over 40 years of age.